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Mountaineering Terminology


1.    Acclimatisation.     The adaptation of the human body to the rarefied atmosphere at high altitudes.

2.     Arete.        A sharp defined ridge of rock or ice.


3.     Avalanche.    The sliding away of surface material from a mountain, especially  snow.


4.      Anchor.  Point where the rope is secured to the snow, ice or rock with either fixed bolts, rocks, trees or non-fixed gear to provide protection against a fall.


5.     Belay.       The device and technique employed by a climber to safeguard the party from the effects of a fall by one of it’s members.


6.       Bergschrund.      A gap or crevasse that appears near the head of a glacier where the neve field portion of the glacier joins the valley portion of the glacier.       


7.     Buttress.    A rocky protuberance from a mountain slide or the rock mass between two gullies (But if narrow this may be called a ridge).


8.      Cairn.     A pile of stones used for marking the summit of a mountain. Cairns are also used to mark out routes where paths are not obvious.


9.         Chimney.       Gap between two rocks which is wider than crack and narrower than a gully. Chimney can be used to climb a rock face.


10.     Chockstone.   A stone, boulder or pebble, jammed in a crack or chimney.   Artificial chocks in metal are now used for protection.


11.       Col.     A dip in a ridge usually between two peaks may be deep and wide enough to carry a motor road, or it may be a mere dip in an icy skyline.  The way across a Col is known as a pass.


12.       Cornice.         A consolidated snow bank projecting over the edge of a ridge, plateau or corrie, and formed by prevailing winds.  They may be temporary which are likely to Avalanche, or they may be permanent.

13.       Crevasse.      A crack in the surface of a glacier. On a dry glacier crevasses can be eassily seen and are not usually difficult to avoid. They can be wide and deep but this is not always the case.

14.       Free Climbing.      Climbing without using any mountaineering equipment like pitons, nuts, runners, etc is called free climbing. Natural holds are used during free climbing.



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The Jawahar Institute of Mountaineering and Winter Sports (JIM&WS).

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The Jawahar Institute of Mountaineering and Winter Sports (JIM&WS)

Address:  Nunwan Pahalgam (J&K)
Telephone:    01936-243129

                        01936-243129 (Training Section)

                        01936-243002 (PA to Principal)

                        9906967831 (Training Clerk)

                        9906967822 (Sub centre, Sanasar)

                        9906967821 (CPIO)

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